the difference is simply gear shifter pull ratios, 10-speed shifters have different pull ratios for 10-speed derailleurs and 11-speed derailleurs, you have to make the pull ratios of the shifter and derailleur compatible with each other because 10-speed shifters are compatible with 10-speed cassette and 10-speed derailleurs, and the other difference is the height and thickness of the cogs and teeth between 10 speed and 11-speed cassettes. 11-speed derailleurs would work fine with the 11-speed cogs and teeth of the cassettes but 11-speed derailleurs would also start loose working with the 10-speed cassettes. this difference is based on smaller and greater-sized cogs and teeth of 10 and 11-speed cassettes.
You also have to adjust the B screw adjuster of the rear derailleur and the clutch of the derailleur, while adjusting these screws you can check the smooth rolling of the chain through the cassette and chin ring cogs. 11-speed derailleurs mostly cause problems when the chain shifts in the higher cogs of the 10-speed cassette. also, you have to adjust the length and width of the chain, and you have to measure the length of the chain to make it compatible with the derailleur and cassette. Derailleurs have their specific two places of mounting with the dropouts of the frames which are post mounts and I.S mounts, 11-speed, and 10-speed cassettes have different mountings with derailleurs, so you have to adjust these mounting places of the 11-speed derailleur for making the derailleur compatible with the 10-speed cassette and shifter.
What Is Cable Pull ratio?
The cable pull ratio is the difference between the movements of the derailleur and the cable of the gear shifters. it is important because if the pull ratio of the cable is not matching with the other, the rear wheel setup would not work appropriately and the derailleur always moves from side to side when the cable of the gear shifters are stretching and pulling the derailleur changes the gears of the cassette when the comparison of the derailleur and cable is not matching with each other, the chain would not shift from higher to lower and lower to higher cogs appropriately.
What Is Cable Pull?
Cable pull is the value of the pulling and stretching of the cable when you change the gears from gear shifters. it will also create a big difference between an 11-speed derailleur and a 10-speed cassette and gear shifter.
The cog pitch of 10 and speed cassettes are different from each other, so it would be hard to make this setup compatible with each other. cog pitch is the space between the two cogs of the 7-speed,11 and 12-speed cassettes, if you want to know the value of the cog pitch for 11 and 12-speed cassettes then you can multiply the value of the cable pull with the value of the cable pull ratio, you can easily find the value of the cog pitch between both of these cassettes. due to the different value of the cog pitch of both of these cassettes, the chain of the 11-speed derailleur work abnormally on the 10-speed cassette and vice versa.
Values Of The Cable Pull And Cable Pull Ratios Of 10 And 11-speed Shifters:( Shimano10/11-Speed Compatibility)
The value of the cable pull of the 10-speed gear shifter is 2.3mm and the value of the 10-speed cable pull ratio is 1.7mm, we have discussed above in the article, when we multiply both of these values we will get 3.91mm, it is the value of the cog pitch of the 10-speed gear shifter, now we will discuss the values for 11-speed shifters.
The value of the cable pull of the 11-speed gear shifter is the same as that of the 10-speed shifter which is 2.3m but the value of the cable pull ratio is different from the 10-speed shifter which is 1.4mm, now when we multiply both of these values we will get 3.22mm value for the cog pitch. if you compare the value of the cog pitch of 10 and 11-speed shifters both of these values are different from each other.
Now we will discuss these values for the 11-speed derailleur and 10-speed cassette and shifters, due to the lower value of the cable pull ratio of the 11-speed shifter, the 11-speed derailleur would move in a limited condition due to the smaller value(3.22mm) of the 11-speed derailleur. and this smaller value of the 11-sped derailleur would limit these derailleurs with the 10-speed cassette and 10-speed shifters. These values and comparisons are not for all the different brands of gear shifters, but these values of the cable pull and cable ratio are of the Shimano brand, so if you buy another brand, you have to face different values of cable pull and cable pull ratios.
Campagnolo Brand Gear Shifters:(Campagnolo 10/11Speed Compatibility)
The value of cable pull ratios for both 10-speed and speed derailleurs of Campagnolo company have the same value which is 1.5mm. it means you can easily replace and interchange 10 and speed shifters and derailleurs of the Campagnolo brand with each other. you can also easily replace and interchange the 11-speed derailleur with the 10-speed and vice versa. so avoid Shimano brand derailleurs and shifters in the future, because they are limited in compatibility but the Campagnolo brand is not limited and you can easily replace derailleurs and gear shifters between them.
Value Of The Cable Pull Ratio For SRAM Derailleurs:(SRAM 10/11-Speed Compatibility)
The ratio of cable ratio of the SRAM derailleurs is also the same which is 1.3mm for both 10-speed and 11-speed derailleurs, which means you can easily replace and interchange the derailleurs of both 10 and 11-speed derailleurs with each other.
Difference Of Chain Width Between 10 and 11-Speed Bikes:
The difference in chain width is only 0.5mm between 10 and 11-speed chains, it is not a big difference if the rolling track of the chain is flat and smooth without any rubbing and stopping.
Derailleur cage And Derailleur Pulleys:
The chain of 10 and 11-speed bikes totally depends on the derailleur cage and the pulleys or jockey wheels of the derailleur, if the derailleur has enough space for the passing of the chain, then the setup is compatible, you have to make the derailleur cage and jockey wheels of the 10 and 11-speed derailleurs compatible for the chain.